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Tuesday, 24 March 2020

Transformer Basics and Parts of transformer

Introduction

A Transformer is a very important machine in electric power system Transformer converts electric power from one electrical circuit to another through electromagnetic induction.
Transformer Basics and Parts of transformer
It is commonly used to increase and decrease the voltage in transmission and distribution systems. This feature of the transformer has increased the use of transmitter than direct current for the purposes of electric power generation, transmission and distribution.
There is no moving part, it is robust and durable in texture and also requires less maintenance and repair. The transformer has much higher efficiency than other electrical machines and can have up to 99% efficiency.

Definition of Transformer

A Transformer is a device that increases and decreases the AC voltage. When the transformer increases the voltage, the current becomes less than this and when the voltage decreases, the current becomes higher.
In other words, a transformer is a device that transmits electric power from one circuit to another, while the frequency is constant.
Since there is no rotating part in the transformer, it is called a Resident device.

Working Principle of Transformer

Transformer working principle is simple. Transformer operates on the principle of mutual induction according to which two or more winding is responsible for the change of power.
it depends on Faraday’s electromagnetic induction law. According to Faraday Law, the rate of change of the time-series flux is directly proportional to the EMF involved in a conductor or coil.

Transformer Basics and Parts of transformer

The transformer operates on the principle of mutual induction, that is when AC voltage is supplied to a coil, the quantity and direction changing flow in the coil, which produces a coaxial flux. The magnetic flux extends outward from its centre and shrinks inward.
If another coil is placed near this coil, the diffusing and shrinking flux creates a voltage in it by linking it to the other coil. The amount of voltage generated is directly proportional to the number of cycles of this coil and the flux density. The induction process is only due to the alternating current so the transformer does not work on the direct current(DC).

Types of Transformer W.R.T Voltage

There are mainly three types of transformers depends pon the voltage ratio. These are mostly used for all the applications.

Transformer Basics and Parts of transformer

Step UP Transformer

A transformer that increases the amount of voltage (And that reduces the current) is called a step-up transformer. The primary winding cycle of this transformer is low and it is made of the coarse conductor while the secondary winding cycle is high and it is made of finely conductor.

Step Down Transformer

A transformer that reduces the amount of voltage (And that increase the current) is called a step-down transformer. The primary winding cycle of this transformer is high and it is made of the fine conductor while the secondary winding cycle is low and it is made of a coarse conductor.

One to One Transformer

A transformer whose AC voltage is provided to the primary winding should provide the same AC voltage at the secondary winding. That is a transformer with the same amount of primary and secondary voltage. This is called a one-to-one transformer or isolation transformer.

Basic Parts of the Transformer

A transformer consists of two inductive coils in simple textures. coils are usually made of copper material. To form coils, a material is chosen which has low resistance, but these two coils are electrically separated.
Magnetically bonded through a magnetic material made of magnetic material, a material is chosen to make the core whose reactance is low. Most silicone steel material is used to make the transformer core. Silicon material with good properties is 1500 times more flux Verse keeps.
The transformer consists of three main parts
  • Transformer Primary Winding ( primary coil )
  • Transformer Magnetic core
  • Transformer Secondary winding ( secondary coil )

Transformer Primary Winding

primary coils produce magnetic flux (magnetic field ) when we connect it to AC current. The magnetic flux extends outward from its centre and shrinks inward. 

Transformer Magnetic core

The purpose of the transformer core is to provide a path for the passage of magnetic flux. It is made of fine steel with a mixture of 3 to 4 per cent silicon.
The steel containing silicon components is called silicon steel. Each stone is insulated by placing an insulation material in the middle of the other stone so that the eddy current is avoided.

Transformer Secondary winding

Magnetic flux in the transformer caused by the AC current in the primary winding passes through the core, will link with a secondary winding. Secondary winding also wound the same core and gives you the desired output voltage. output depends on turn ratio between primary and secondary winding.

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