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Friday, 27 March 2020

Transformer Noise and Reducing the Noise of Transformer

Noise refers to unnecessary Voice. Transformer noise is called hum (transformer hum). Causes of noise generated in the transformer And to cure it Research has been taking place for a long time. 
Transformer Noise

Because transformers are installed in public places, buildings, shopping centres, etc. The importance of noise reduction in these transformers is very high.

The cause of the noise in the transformer is Magnetostriction. This is how it can be explained in simple terms. When a piece of magnetic sheet steel is magnetised, it expands. And when the Excitation is removed, it returns to its original state.

That is, it shrinks after the Spreads. The transformer is excited from the alternating voltage and the transformer's core can spread twice in a full cycle of magnetization.

If the transformer is connected with 50HZ frequencies, So the process of spreading and shrinking in a second is 100 times. This process of spreading and shrinking is non-uniform. As a result, the spreading and shrinking process changes all over the steel sheet of the core. 

Due to the non-uniform process of the spread and shrinkage. Each steel sheet expands and shrinks in different quantities and configurations from other steel sheets.

So when the transformer's core is exciting, the core looks to be moving. Which causes a vibration in the core. And it causes transformer noise. Remember that the cover vibration is so low so we cannot see core vibration with human eyes.

In other words, it can be described as when the transformer is excited with an alternating voltage. So the alternating flux is generated. Which spreads and shrinks twice in a full voltage cycle. 

In 50 HZ Frequency, magnetic flux spread and shrink 100 times in one second. The noise generated depends on the amount of flux generated and the rate of change of flux. Harmonics in transformers increase the frequency significantly. which causes increase frequency of 50 Hz transformers to 150 Hz frequency. Increasing the frequency also increases noise.

Also Read: Transformer Losses - Types of Losses in Transformer

As mentioned earlier, the movement of each cover (sheet) to a different volume and setting causes noise. If one of the core (steel sheet) or too many steel sheets are not tightly connected to each other, then the rate of movement in the steel sheet or steel sheets increases, causing an increase the Transformer noise.

The transformer is designed for a certain amount of voltage, so the amount of flux produced by a primary voltage is constant in a transformer. Increasing the load current does not matter on the volume of the flux, so there is no significant change in the noise of the transformer as the load current is low or high.

Reducing the Noise of Transformer

The noise of the transformer can be changed by reducing the amount of applied voltage, but applying less voltage also reduces the flux density. Which adversely affects the performance of the transformer

The steel sheets of the transformer cover can reduce transformer noise by making smooth, uniform thickness and tightly coupled to each other. Also, by tightening the full cover with a nut bolt and tightening it, the noise can also be reduced.

The transformer uses tertiary winding to eliminate harmonics which are added to the delta Transformers in which the harmonics cause excessive noise can be reduced by using tertiary winding.

Placing the transformer firmly on a tower or foundation and completely insulating the cover and winding inside the tank reduces vibration, which also reduces the noise of the Transformer.

Placing the transformer in an enclosed compartment or concrete wall creates less Transformer noise in the surrounding environment.

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