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Tuesday, 31 March 2020

What is Circuit Breaker and Working Principle

What is Circuit Breaker and Working Principle

What is Circuit Breaker

An electrical circuit breaker is a device used to turn a circuit on and off in normal conditions and in non-normal conditions to break the circuit under an automated system.
The circuit breaker usually performs the following two tasks:

  1. Customize the relevant part of the system for expansion or maintenance of the power system.
  2. In case of faults, separate the fault section from the correct part and under normal conditions to turn on or off any circuit or feeders or load.
The first task can be taken with a simple switch at low voltage and low load current. However, the second task is extremely complex. And the fault current is very high in the current. So to achieve this, a circuit breaker is used that performs both of the above tasks very well.

A circuit breaker is mainly comprised of a set of fixed and dynamic contacts. The contacts can be coupled or separated through a quick-acting mechanism. These contacts are sometimes called electrodes if the circuit breaker has a set of fixed and moving contacts and the circuit breaker is put into a phase, then it is called a single-pole circuit breaker.

If there are three sets of fixed and moving contacts in the circuit breaker and each set is enclosed in one phase, such circuit breakers are called three-pole circuit breakers. Each pool of circuit breakers consists of a separate arc extinguisher chamber. The contacts are such that they can be open without damage and are protected from interconnecting in the case of arching.

Circuit breakers, especially in the case of faults, have to shut off too much current flow. And because of the arc, the contacts can also be welded. So such means are adopted. That the arc should be extinguished as quickly as possible without interruption. The insulating medium should be this good. In order to withstand transient voltages that arise immediately after the current flows on the contacts. The arc is created after the separation of current-caring contacts.

Which is extinguished by a suitable medium such as air, dye electric oil, sulfur hexafluoride gas or vacuum, also produces energy in the form of heat. This temperature is reduced in some way to extinguish the arc. Circuit breaker contacts are closed in normal conditions. And do not open automatically unless the system is faulty. When a fault occurs in any part of the system. So the triple coil of the circuit breaker gets energized with the relay provided signal. And the circuit breaker's moving contacts are separated by a mechanism so the circuit is opened.
Circuit Breaker

The names of the parts of this circuit are as follows.
  1. Circuit Breaker
  2. Relay
  3. The trip coil of a circuit breaker
  4. Trip circuit
  5. battery
  6. relay contacts
  7. potential transformer
  8. current transformer
  9. auxiliary switch
  10. protected line

Working Principle of Circuit Breaker

A circuit breaker consists primarily of fixed and moving contacts called electrodes. During normal conditions these contacts are closed and do not open automatically until a fault occurs on the system. These contacts can be opened either manually or by remote control.

When a fault occurs in any part of the system. So the triple coil of the breaker gets energized. And the moving contacts are separated by a mechanism so that the circuit breaker is opened. When the contacts of the circuit breaker are separated in the case of fault, an arc is created between these contacts. The current continues until the arc is closed. Creating an arc not only delays the current of the current, but also produces great heat. The most important issue in a circuit breaker is to extinguish the arc in the shortest possible time, which causes the breaker or the system to be damaged. So that the heat generated by it does not reach the danger threshold.

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